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  • 00:00 [Upbeat Music]
  • 00:02 [Spring Meetings 2022]
  • 00:05 [Learning]
  • 00:07 [COVID-19]
  • 00:10 [Healthcare]
  • 00:13 [Social Protection]
  • 00:15 [Equal Opportunities]
  • 00:18 [HUMAN CAPITAL AT THE CROSSROADS]
  • 00:27 [Rachelle Akuffo] Good morning, good afternoon and good evening
  • 00:30 to our viewers from around the world.
  • 00:32 Thank you for joining us for this event, Human Capital at the Crossroads.
  • 00:36 I'm Rachelle Akuffo, your host for today's event.
  • 00:39 [Rachelle Akuffo, Yahoo Finance Anchor & Moderator]
  • 00:40 How investments in education, health,
  • 00:42 social protection, jobs, and gender equality
  • 00:45 that build human capital
  • 00:47 are intrinsically important for individual well-being,
  • 00:50 creating more equitable societies, sustaining economic growth,
  • 00:54 and preventing millions of people from falling into poverty.
  • 00:58 Now, more than at any other time in living memory,
  • 01:01 human capital is being dealt devastating blows
  • 01:04 by conflicts, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 01:08 The losses to learning, health outcomes,
  • 01:10 livelihoods and gender equality have immediate and long-term impacts
  • 01:15 on people's well-being
  • 01:16 and can undermine economic recovery and prosperity for years to come.
  • 01:21 Today we'll hear from leaders, innovators and changemakers
  • 01:25 who are taking action to put people at the heart of recovery.
  • 01:28 We will hear firsthand how such investments
  • 01:31 can not only change lives for individuals,
  • 01:33 but also create more inclusive and equitable societies.
  • 01:37 Now, you'll be inspired by how so many are coming together to rebuild and reclaim
  • 01:42 the future for today's generation and those to come.
  • 01:45 A reminder that you can watch this event live
  • 01:48 in English, Spanish, French, or Arabic at live.worldbank.org.
  • 01:53 Here's a quick look at what's coming up over the next 90 minutes.
  • 01:58 [COMING UP]
  • 02:04 [TANZANIA: HUMAN CAPITAL CHALLENGES & PRIORITIES]
  • 02:07 [H.E. Samia Suluhu Hassan, President of Tanzania]
  • 02:09 [David Malpass, President, World Bank Group]
  • 02:16 [LEARNING POVERTY AND THE EARLY YEARS]
  • 02:17 [Amina Mohammed, UN Deputy Secretary-General]
  • 02:19 [Malala Yousafzai, Co-Founder, Malala Fund]
  • 02:20 [Mari Pangestu, Managing Director of Development Policy & Partnerships, World Bank]
  • 02:25 [STRENGTHENING HEALTH & SOCIAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS]
  • 02:27 [Dr. Sania Nishtar, Senator, Pakistan]
  • 02:29 [Gustavo Béliz, Secretary of Strategic Affairs, Argentina]
  • 02:30 [Dr. Morena Makhoana, CEO, Biovac]
  • 02:35 [DEVELOPING SKILLS & CREATING OPPORTUNITIES]
  • 02:37 [Zeena Majali, Co-Founder, Crystel]
  • 02:38 [Beatrice Mahuru, Founder & CEO, GLaD and B&WE]
  • 02:44 [Rachelle Akuffo] Such an impressive and diverse range of voices.
  • 02:47 We're in for some very interesting discussions
  • 02:50 as we explore how protecting and investing in people is central
  • 02:54 to sustainable, resilient and inclusive development.
  • 02:58 To kick us off, I'm delighted to introduce
  • 03:00 the President of the United Republic of Tanzania,
  • 03:02 Her Excellency Samia Suluhu Hassan.
  • 03:05 Now, President Samia is the first female president of her country
  • 03:09 and is a powerful agent and voice for change.
  • 03:12 She's a champion for gender equality and economic empowerment for women and girls.
  • 03:17 In addition, she has reset Tanzania's response
  • 03:20 to combat the COVID-19 pandemic,
  • 03:23 including access to effective COVID-19 vaccines.
  • 03:26 We're delighted to have this opportunity today
  • 03:29 to hear from President Samia on her country's progress and approach.
  • 03:32 She is joining David Malpass,
  • 03:34 President of the World Bank Group,
  • 03:36 for a conversation on the importance
  • 03:38 of protecting and investing in human capital.
  • 03:42 Over to you, President Malpass.
  • 03:44 [David Malpass] Thank you very much, Rachelle.
  • 03:46 And thank you, Madam President, for joining us today.
  • 03:50 We've had meetings all week.
  • 03:52 The theme of the meetings is both the challenges facing countries,
  • 03:56 that's COVID, that's inflation,
  • 03:58 that's the insecurity and the war in Ukraine,
  • 04:02 all facing leaders around the world.
  • 04:05 Also what some of the solutions are.
  • 04:08 One of the key areas for progress
  • 04:12 is human capital itself.
  • 04:14 Unfortunately, through the COVID crisis,
  • 04:18 there was a loss of education, a loss of progress on health, on nutrition.
  • 04:23 That's our topic for today.
  • 04:27 Our audience is very interested in your approach
  • 04:31 and you're thinking about how to resume progress on human capital.
  • 04:35 What are the key steps?
  • 04:38 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] Human capital is imparted
  • 04:42 in our five-year development plan,
  • 04:45 the third development plan.
  • 04:48 But also in the vision, the 20-year vision which started in 2020 to 2025.
  • 04:55 So for us, human capital involves
  • 05:02 actions with social service to the people.
  • 05:06 And by social service we start with health.
  • 05:10 Somebody has to be healthy to be able to live in peace and to live happily.
  • 05:17 But then they have to get education,
  • 05:20 then they have to get clean and safe water, and that's part of health.
  • 05:26 Then they have to be happy living with others.
  • 05:30 They have to have something to do to earn their own bread.
  • 05:35 So talking of education, we have made a stride.
  • 05:39 First of all,
  • 05:40 we're offering free education for all,
  • 05:44 at least from pre-primary to primary-secondary education.
  • 05:49 Free education for all.
  • 05:50 We have made a stride.
  • 05:53 In 2015, our enrollment was about 58.8%
  • 06:01 and now we are almost...
  • 06:03 no, we were at 80% and we are almost at 95.5%.
  • 06:10 So, we are going to 100% enrollment, and it's free for all boys and girls.
  • 06:16 Then, talking of secondary schools,
  • 06:20 we are continuing with a free education
  • 06:22 and most of our kids go to secondary school.
  • 06:26 But then we have created a fund
  • 06:29 whereby, when they go to university, they have to borrow money from that fund,
  • 06:36 go for the education,
  • 06:37 and then they are paying back when they get employed,
  • 06:41 whether self-employment or they get employed somewhere,
  • 06:45 that's when they are paying back.
  • 06:47 And we have done so knowing that
  • 06:50 if we leave, or we left, the burden of
  • 06:54 educating those kids in universities,
  • 06:59 their parents couldn't do that.
  • 07:01 So we have created a fund.
  • 07:03 But then in the same way in education,
  • 07:08 you remember we had a ban on adolescent mothers going back to school,
  • 07:14 and now we have lifted that ban.
  • 07:18 Now the adolescent mothers, the dropouts, whether boys or girls,
  • 07:23 adolescent mothers or not, they are free to go back to school,
  • 07:28 to complete their education, at least at the primary level.
  • 07:32 But some of them, they are doing good.
  • 07:34 We have a very good example in Zanzibar,
  • 07:37 where this ban was lifted long ago and most of the adolescent mothers
  • 07:42 went back to school and now they are completing
  • 07:45 their university education.
  • 07:46 We thought we should give that privilege
  • 07:50 to the adolescent mothers and the dropouts.
  • 07:53 On health, we have done well.
  • 07:58 We're still having challenges,
  • 08:01 but our policy is health for all and we have tried hard.
  • 08:08 We have different segments of health service.
  • 08:11 We have the village level,
  • 08:13 then ward level, district level, regional level, then national referral level.
  • 08:21 We have done well from the district, regional and referral,
  • 08:27 we have tried.
  • 08:29 But then we are now concentrating on the village level,
  • 08:33 because we learned it from COVID.
  • 08:36 We need to have the first aid, first treatment down to the village.
  • 08:41 Now we are concentrating on the village level,
  • 08:44 of where, as I'm talking, we have done about...
  • 08:50 Tanzania has about 12,300 villages
  • 08:54 and before my time
  • 08:57 we have built around 5 to 6 thousand health centers at the village level.
  • 09:04 And we are continuing.
  • 09:05 As we are talking, I'm having a project of about 333 dispensaries
  • 09:12 built at the village, just to add on to what we have done.
  • 09:16 In health sector, we have tried that much, but we still do have challenge.
  • 09:23 The challenge is, we have done very well on infrastructure,
  • 09:27 but now to improve the quality of the services
  • 09:32 which are given to the people.
  • 09:33 [David Malpass] Who provides the healthcare at that village level?
  • 09:36 The government, of course.
  • 09:40 [David Malpass] Nurse... do doctors travel through?
  • 09:43 How does it break down?
  • 09:44 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] They call them the assistant medical officers.
  • 09:48 They are doing the services down to the village.
  • 09:51 Of course, every dispenser is having two nurses,
  • 09:56 plus a medical doctor, an assistant medical doctor.
  • 09:58 [David Malpass] Do they look at nutrition?
  • 10:01 Will they identify children that are
  • 10:04 either under nourished or have the incorrect vitamins and so on?
  • 10:08 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] Yes.
  • 10:09 [IN CONVERSATION: PRESIDENT OF TANZANIA]
  • 10:10 because we are starting giving service to the mothers
  • 10:15 when they are pregnant,
  • 10:17 making sure they all have folic acids, avoid pneumonia, anemia,
  • 10:23 and so that they can give birth to healthy babies.
  • 10:27 When the babies are born, we take all the necessary measures,
  • 10:32 vaccination, checking whether they're disabled or not,
  • 10:37 then the early health services,
  • 10:41 we are trying to give them all.
  • 10:43 [David Malpass] That used to be a big problem in Tanzania,
  • 10:46 the childbirth complications.
  • 10:51 Can that improve the situation rapidly?
  • 10:55 Because we're talking about a nine month period
  • 10:59 or a one year period before birth.
  • 11:02 How's that going?
  • 11:04 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] We have improved.
  • 11:05 We have improved because...
  • 11:13 five years back we were talking of,
  • 11:17 let's say 120 deaths per 100 thousand
  • 11:23 for babies, zero to one year of age.
  • 11:27 Now, we are talking about 27.
  • 11:31 Only 27.
  • 11:32 [David Malpass] You're at 80% improvement, which is huge.
  • 11:36 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] This is because we are taking care of the pregnant mother
  • 11:40 and then we are giving necessary services
  • 11:44 when the child is being born.
  • 11:48 Our health centers down to the villages,
  • 11:51 they provide theaters for the pregnant mothers,
  • 11:55 the complicated ones,
  • 11:56 to be operated and save their lives, for both babies and mothers.
  • 12:00 [David Malpass] I see.
  • 12:01 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] Then, we are still struggling with maternal mortality.
  • 12:08 We have reduced it a great deal, but the numbers are still not acceptable.
  • 12:13 [David Malpass] What do you find are the challenges,
  • 12:15 both in education and in health,
  • 12:17 is it fiscal, is it the amount of money or is it to train the personnel?
  • 12:23 Or is it imports that are...
  • 12:25 What are the biggest challenges?
  • 12:27 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] I think it's a mixture because, in education,
  • 12:32 the challenge was the acceptance of parents to send their kids to school.
  • 12:42 [David Malpass] Especially girls?
  • 12:43 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] Yes, especially girls.
  • 12:45 In some societies, the housekeepers, they love storekeepers.
  • 12:50 They prefer their kids to go for herding rather than going to school.
  • 12:55 So we had to educate the parents to accept sending their kids to school.
  • 13:00 My number two challenge was infrastructure,
  • 13:03 the lack of classrooms.
  • 13:07 But now we are done with that.
  • 13:10 We are still having shortages, but not as much as it was before.
  • 13:14 The third challenge is the number of teachers,
  • 13:18 be able to employ teachers
  • 13:21 which would be enough for every school in the whole country. be able to employ teachers
  • 13:21 which would be enough for every school in the whole country.
  • 13:26 That was our challenge.
  • 13:28 [David Malpass] Is there a qualification standard?
  • 13:32 Is that important, the quality of the teacher?
  • 13:35 How do you think about that?
  • 13:36 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] The quality of the teachers?
  • 13:38 Yes.
  • 13:40 But we are taking on the quality of the teachers in science subjects.
  • 13:44 That's where we are struggling.
  • 13:46 The art subjects, we are having enough.
  • 13:48 The challenge with the arts subject IS
  • 13:50 [LIVE: PRESIDENT OF TANZANIA ON INVESTING IN PEOPLE]
  • 13:52 the capacity of the government to employ more teachers.
  • 13:55 But for the science subjects, yes, we are still struggling.
  • 13:58 Training more science subject teachers.
  • 14:02 We are working on that.
  • 14:04 [David Malpass] Is there a difference between women teachers and men teachers
  • 14:07 as far as effectiveness?
  • 14:08 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] Yeah [David Malpass] Which way?
  • 14:10 Fortunately, the health and education sector
  • 14:14 employs more women than men.
  • 14:17 We are having more female teachers than male, in numbers.
  • 14:23 Also in health sector, we are having more female nurses than men.
  • 14:29 But when you go up to the doctors,
  • 14:32 we're having more male doctors than female doctors.
  • 14:35 [UP NEXT: HOW TO JOIN THE CONVERSATION]
  • 14:37 [David Malpass] Someday maybe those can balance.
  • 14:39 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] This is because, when we were moving to our...
  • 14:45 former stream of education, girls kept on dropping out,
  • 14:53 and there were not much on science subjects than men.
  • 14:59 But nowadays that gap has been reduced.
  • 15:02 [David Malpass] We find if girls are given the chance,
  • 15:05 they do very well in maths and science.
  • 15:07 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] Yes, sure.
  • 15:08 [David Malpass] I know you've been a big promoter of girls' education
  • 15:12 and also countering gender-based violence.
  • 15:17 How is that going and what are the obstacles to that?
  • 15:22 Is it educating the society not to allow it, or...
  • 15:27 What's most effective?
  • 15:29 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] Before the gender-based education, we had both.
  • 15:34 We had the legal frameworks and then we had education.
  • 15:38 But then with the legal frameworks,
  • 15:43 most of those who are victims of gender-based violence
  • 15:49 wouldn't like to go for legal frameworks,
  • 15:52 they would like to fix things at home.
  • 15:57 So we go for education.
  • 15:59 And education...
  • 16:02 I think we started wrongly by educating women only.
  • 16:06 But now we have realized that both have to be educated,
  • 16:10 men and women,
  • 16:12 that gender-based violence is neither good for men nor for women.
  • 16:17 We are conducting the NGOs,
  • 16:20 the civil society organizations are conducting training for all of them.
  • 16:26 [David Malpass] That's an important insight.
  • 16:29 It's obvious when you say it that men are part of the problem
  • 16:33 and have to be educated and brought forward along.
  • 16:38 Okay, very good.
  • 16:42 Any advice?
  • 16:44 We have couple more minutes.
  • 16:46 Do you have advice for other leaders?
  • 16:48 You've been a strong leader, a new leader.
  • 16:52 Is it important to move fast?
  • 16:53 What do you take away from your experience?
  • 16:56 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] From my experience,
  • 16:59 I think everybody needs to be a good leader to his or her country.
  • 17:03 But then we are having challenges.
  • 17:06 With these challenges might be supported...
  • 17:10 or the government be supported by different multilateral institutions,
  • 17:17 bilateral means to eradicate those challenges.
  • 17:21 We do have challenges,
  • 17:25 maybe to improve the qualities of health and education,
  • 17:29 challenges of provision of safe and clean water to our people.
  • 17:33 Challenges of provision of green energy to our people.
  • 17:39 And now we are talking of green energy.
  • 17:42 The international organizations come up with new terminologies every now and then.
  • 17:47 "Green energy", "leave this", "don't use that".
  • 17:50 But they have to look at the situations we are in,
  • 17:56 because, as we are talking now, we are told to go for green energy.
  • 18:01 For us, in Africa, for example,
  • 18:05 we can go for hydro-power,
  • 18:08 we can go for solar, we can go for gas.
  • 18:11 This is being put in question mark.
  • 18:15 But we have a lot of gas.
  • 18:16 We can go for gas.
  • 18:18 We can go for thermal and wind.
  • 18:21 Those are the green sources of energy.
  • 18:24 But we need support to generate energy from those sources.
  • 18:29 [David Malpass] You're doing a remarkable job, and we're looking
  • 18:31 for ways to expand our program.
  • 18:33 I'm particularly happy to hear about
  • 18:35 the progress in education, in health,
  • 18:38 and gender-based violence.
  • 18:40 These are all key to the future of Tanzania.
  • 18:43 Thank you very much, Madam President.
  • 18:47 I'll go back to Rachelle.
  • 18:49 [Samia Suluhu Hassan] Thank you very much.
  • 18:51 [David Malpass] Thank you.
  • 18:53 [Rachelle Akuffo] A very big thank you to you as well,
  • 18:54 President Samia, for sharing your insights.
  • 18:57 Please do share your thoughts on that discussion and those to come.
  • 19:00 [#INVESTINPEOPLE]
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  • 19:09 You can also post comments and questions at live.worldbank.org.
  • 19:13 We have experts standing by to answer your questions
  • 19:16 in English, Spanish, French and Arabic.
  • 19:19 You can see some of them in action right here.
  • 19:22 We'll be putting some of the most popular questions
  • 19:25 to two Bank's experts at the end of today's event.
  • 19:30 [AMMAN, JORDAN]
  • 19:31 [Nabil] I'm Nabil in Amman,
  • 19:33 and you're watching the World Bank Group-IMF Spring Meetings.
  • 19:39 [Rachelle Akuffo] The world has been facing
  • 19:40 a global learning crisis for some time.
  • 19:43 Countries are faced with issues of inadequate resources
  • 19:47 and many children lack access to quality education.
  • 19:50 Then, of course, comes the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 19:54 To really understand how COVID has escalated
  • 19:57 the learning crisis, let's look at the latest data.
  • 20:00 Now, remember, we define learning poverty
  • 20:03 as being unable to read and understand
  • 20:05 a simple text by age ten.
  • 20:08 So, how did the pandemic affect students around the world?
  • 20:11 At its peak, 1.6 billion children were impacted
  • 20:16 by COVID-19 related school closures.
  • 20:19 This really was a global crisis,
  • 20:22 188 countries were impacted.
  • 20:25 How has the unprecedented hit on schooling
  • 20:28 affected learning poverty?
  • 20:30 Well, back in 2015,
  • 20:32 the rate of learning poverty
  • 20:34 in low and middle-income countries was 53%.
  • 20:38 Just to give you a sense of the global disparity,
  • 20:41 in high-income countries, that figure was just 9%.
  • 20:46 So, it may be some time before we have the final data
  • 20:49 on the impact of the pandemic,
  • 20:50 but the projections are startling.
  • 20:53 Recent simulations suggest that learning poverty
  • 20:56 could have increased to 70%,
  • 20:59 a rise of 17 percentage points.
  • 21:02 To understand the extent to which this pandemic has derailed progress,
  • 21:06 take a look at this blue line,
  • 21:08 which shows the international target for learning poverty,
  • 21:12 which was to halve the rate by 2030.
  • 21:15 That ambitious target now appears unattainable.
  • 21:21 Clearly, we must get learning back on track and accelerate progress.
  • 21:25 Tackling learning poverty is a crucial component
  • 21:28 to building a country's human capital.
  • 21:30 We must also ensure we are giving children
  • 21:33 the best possible start in life.
  • 21:35 How we best go about this is something
  • 21:37 upon which our first panel of guests all have interesting perspectives.
  • 21:44 I'm joined now by three global leaders
  • 21:46 who understand that investing in the early years
  • 21:48 helps to break the cycle of poverty,
  • 21:50 address inequality and boost productivity.
  • 21:54 I'm joined here by Mari Pangestu,
  • 21:56 World Bank Managing Director
  • 21:57 of Development Policy & Partnerships,
  • 22:00 Malala Yousafzai, co-founder of the Malala Fund,
  • 22:03 the youngest ever Nobel laureate
  • 22:05 and a tireless advocate for girls' rights to education.
  • 22:08 And Amina Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General
  • 22:11 of the United Nations.
  • 22:13 A very warm welcome to all of you.
  • 22:15 Thank you for joining us on this important day.
  • 22:17 A lot of important conversations to be had.
  • 22:19 Mari, I want to first start with you.
  • 22:21 The devastating impact of school closures on learning outcomes,
  • 22:25 with a spiraling learning poverty
  • 22:27 threatens to derail an entire generation.
  • 22:30 What are the extents of the challenges
  • 22:31 and what should be done?
  • 22:33 [Mari Pangestu] Thanks, Rochelle.
  • 22:35 It's a great pleasure to be on this panel
  • 22:37 with Amina Mohammed, my old friend and of course,
  • 22:40 Malala as a role model for the right for girls to have education.
  • 22:45 I think just to put the context of the challenges,
  • 22:48 we've never had such a situation in the world
  • 22:51 where you had long global lockdown of schools.
  • 22:55 The average is 286 days that schools were closed down.
  • 22:59 In some regions, like South Asia, it's very high.
  • 23:02 It's like 480 days.
  • 23:04 That's a year to almost two years of kids not being in school.
  • 23:09 The learning losses are something
  • 23:12 that will be the big challenge.
  • 23:14 The impact of not going to school
  • 23:17 and loss of learning is also unequal in its impact,
  • 23:22 affecting young children the most,
  • 23:24 as well as those in poorer households
  • 23:27 and those who are not connected.
  • 23:29 To the extent that remote learning is available,
  • 23:31 but if you don't have connectivity,
  • 23:33 you will not be able to reach any type of remote learning.
  • 23:37 UNICEF estimates that 31% of school children
  • 23:40 could not access any kind of remote learning.
  • 23:44 These are the challenges,
  • 23:46 and it translates into a lost decade of development.
  • 23:49 You can actually put a number to it,
  • 23:51 which is 17 trillion dollars worth of loss earnings
  • 23:55 because of the reduced learning.
  • 23:58 That's 14% of the world GDP.
  • 24:01 What needs to be done?
  • 24:02 I think this is really what we are all working
  • 24:06 with our partners and with countries.
  • 24:09 How can we address this?
  • 24:11 We need swift and urgent action.
  • 24:13 First of all, get kids back to school
  • 24:16 because we also know there has also been a high dropout rate,
  • 24:19 kids not coming back to school,
  • 24:21 even as schools opening up, especially girls.
  • 24:24 This happened with the Ebola crisis
  • 24:26 where less girls came back to school.
  • 24:29 We've got to create the incentives
  • 24:31 for kids to come back to school
  • 24:33 and stay in school, especially girls.
  • 24:36 Incentives combined with school meals,
  • 24:39 making sure like, in Brazil,
  • 24:41 we're working with the Brazilian government
  • 24:43 to sort of have a check system,
  • 24:45 a survey system to understand
  • 24:48 when kids are not coming back to school
  • 24:51 and finding how to get them back to school.
  • 24:53 Creating safe schools for girls is very important.
  • 24:57 Second, how do you regain the learning losses?
  • 25:00 It's not just the one or one and a half years
  • 25:03 of not going to school that's lost.
  • 25:05 They've also forgotten what they learned
  • 25:07 even when they were in school.
  • 25:09 This accelerated learning recovery really needs a focus
  • 25:14 in terms of the programs that we need to design,
  • 25:16 the teachers that we need to train
  • 25:18 to be able to have the tools and resources to address this.
  • 25:22 Then third,
  • 25:23 as we are addressing the learning recovery,
  • 25:26 we should also be addressing what we need to change
  • 25:30 for the more medium-term education issues, the core skills,
  • 25:36 how do we get teachers to be trained?
  • 25:39 We're also looking at what we call school beyond walls,
  • 25:42 the important role of parents
  • 25:44 and communities as well in the learning,
  • 25:46 and the whole digital divide.
  • 25:49 We need to address how to get the remote learning and
  • 25:53 using digital and connectivity is very important.
  • 25:55 I just want to share one...
  • 25:58 We're working with a lot of countries on this.
  • 26:00 One area that is important,
  • 26:04 how do you develop tools and train teachers
  • 26:07 to understand the differentiated learning needs of children?
  • 26:12 In Gujarat, we actually have tools
  • 26:15 to have teachers look at the learning needs of kids every week
  • 26:20 and then adjust the learning materials
  • 26:22 to be able to adjust for the different needs.
  • 26:25 This is the kind of thing that needs to also happen
  • 26:28 on the ground as we really address the urgent need
  • 26:31 for recovering the losses.
  • 26:33 The final thing I would say is funding, of course,
  • 26:35 how can we really raise this awareness
  • 26:38 for governments to allocate sufficient budget
  • 26:41 for recovering these learning losses?
  • 26:44 Otherwise, it's a lost generation and loss of future income.
  • 26:48 Then also, how does the international community
  • 26:51 comes around to really help
  • 26:54 to accelerate this regaining of the learning losses?
  • 26:58 [Rachelle Akuffo] As you mentioned,
  • 26:58 this really is a holistic approach that needs to be taken.
  • 27:01 A real wake up call, obviously,
  • 27:03 with COVID building on what was already happening
  • 27:05 in the education system.
  • 27:07 Malala, I want to bring you in here
  • 27:08 because in some regions and contexts,
  • 27:11 very few students are able to read.
  • 27:13 How do we address this
  • 27:14 and what special considerations are needed
  • 27:16 from a gender and fragility context?
  • 27:20 [Malala Yousafzai] I think in this time,
  • 27:22 education advocates need to take the issue
  • 27:25 of the quality of education more seriously.
  • 27:28 We know that when children enroll into schools,
  • 27:30 there's also the issue of what they learn in their classrooms.
  • 27:34 It's the access to education,
  • 27:36 but also, the quality of education that are important.
  • 27:40 We know that there is also the element of gender in it.
  • 27:45 Girls do outperform boys in arts,
  • 27:49 and they're also catching up on maths as well.
  • 27:52 If we look at the averages,
  • 27:54 averages only tell us half the story.
  • 27:57 We need to dig deeper into this
  • 28:00 and look at how girls from marginalized,
  • 28:03 from low-income communities are more impacted,
  • 28:05 they're less likely to excel in these academic subjects.
  • 28:10 There's also the issue of the crisis.
  • 28:15 When an external crisis hit an economy,
  • 28:18 girls are usually the first ones to drop out,
  • 28:20 and the last ones to return to their classrooms.
  • 28:23 So, we need to look at the factor of gender,
  • 28:26 the factor of their background as well,
  • 28:29 to ensure that we are addressing
  • 28:34 the issues that are there in the systems.
  • 28:39 We also know that
  • 28:42 we need policies that are more inclusive,
  • 28:46 holistic, and also creative
  • 28:49 when we are talking about the future of education.
  • 28:52 This pandemic has taught us that
  • 28:54 we need to consider education beyond just a classroom.
  • 28:59 Think about how we can use digital platforms as tools for education.
  • 29:06 I hope that this is a time when our leaders, when our policymakers
  • 29:11 realize that this is an urgent issue.
  • 29:14 This is a crisis that needs to be addressed sooner.
  • 29:17 Every year, children are losing out on access to education.
  • 29:21 Girls are left behind because of lack of access to schools.
  • 29:25 The number is in millions.
  • 29:27 We still live in a world where 127 million girls
  • 29:30 do not have access to education.
  • 29:33 We want this to change.
  • 29:34 We want all children, in any part of the world,
  • 29:36 to be able to go to school, to have dreams
  • 29:39 and to make those dreams come true for themselves.
  • 29:42 I hope that policymakers, experts, do more for this cause.
  • 29:48 We know that they are making good verbal statements,
  • 29:52 but now it's time that they take action as well.
  • 29:54 They increase their finance.
  • 29:56 They increase financing for education.
  • 29:58 We know that financing for education has been stagnant.
  • 30:04 There has been little increase.
  • 30:06 And so we need that
  • 30:09 but we also need an investment in the quality of education as well.
  • 30:13 [Rachelle Akuffo] As you mentioned, in terms of COVID-19,
  • 30:16 Amina, I want to bring you in here
  • 30:18 because we know that COVID-19 has been the biggest setback
  • 30:21 to human capital in living memory.
  • 30:24 What are the unique impacts on young people,
  • 30:26 and what are the key priorities to get back on track?
  • 30:29 [Amina Mohammed] Thank you very much.
  • 30:31 It's great to be with Malala and with Mary
  • 30:33 on a subject that is so important
  • 30:36 in us taking advantage of the recovery.
  • 30:38 It is about the socioeconomic recovery from COVID,
  • 30:43 and now we have another exacerbating crisis
  • 30:45 with the war in Ukraine.
  • 30:47 I think Mary has spoken to really
  • 30:50 the facts and figures for the learning losses.
  • 30:53 I think that
  • 30:54 something we really need to think about is that they were there before COVID.
  • 30:59 We were having children dropping out.
  • 31:01 We were having many who couldn't read or write.
  • 31:03 I mean, we have had this situation for decades.
  • 31:06 What are we going to do differently?
  • 31:08 I think that this is the question now
  • 31:10 for us to rethink education.
  • 31:12 To have a rebirth of the way the future,
  • 31:14 the next generation are going to have education.
  • 31:17 The learning losses showed us
  • 31:19 that even if you had connectivity,
  • 31:21 teachers were not prepared to teach
  • 31:24 and learners were not prepared to learn.
  • 31:26 Even though, we thought we had them connected.
  • 31:28 I think that those lessons are important,
  • 31:31 that we invest in the capacities
  • 31:34 for knowledge and for learning to happen
  • 31:37 and for the right skill sets for that individual to contribute
  • 31:41 A) to themselves, but B) to the community
  • 31:43 and the society at large.
  • 31:45 Many of the learning losses were compounded by many issues,
  • 31:50 not just not having access to education, but remember,
  • 31:53 we did the school feeding around the world
  • 31:55 to make sure that at least that one square meal happened
  • 31:59 and we got better nutrition.
  • 32:00 We lost that not just in the Global South but even in the Global North.
  • 32:04 Here in New York,
  • 32:05 we had 300 thousand meals that people had to come and collect
  • 32:08 just because they fell out of school.
  • 32:10 But we also, I think, learned very quickly
  • 32:15 the importance of the curriculum itself.
  • 32:21 I think that when we are thinking forward
  • 32:24 and re birthing education,
  • 32:25 we will need to give a lot more thought to
  • 32:27 what is education for.
  • 32:29 We cannot have this cookie cutter
  • 32:31 where in every country we aspire to one norm,
  • 32:34 which may not work for us.
  • 32:35 We saw that in the learning losses
  • 32:39 that happened as we went along.
  • 32:42 My greatest concern for what has happened
  • 32:44 during this time with young people
  • 32:47 and I'm really listening to them,
  • 32:48 when I visited Costa Rica, a girls' school there
  • 32:50 and just listened to the young girls,
  • 32:52 was in fact the mental health dimension to this.
  • 32:55 The head is on the body,
  • 32:57 and we often talk about the health of the body,
  • 33:00 but we don't talk about the health of the head.
  • 33:02 And we are one.
  • 33:03 And as they came out of this, the anxiety that they had,
  • 33:07 the depression that set in,
  • 33:09 the lack of connect human interaction
  • 33:13 that was missing from the new classroom,
  • 33:16 and in fact, with the crises,
  • 33:20 not being able to deal with what happens next,
  • 33:25 what is my future about?
  • 33:26 How am I going to connect with it?
  • 33:28 Can I catch up? Will I be left behind?
  • 33:31 I think that this, in crisis situations,
  • 33:34 in normal situations,
  • 33:36 are all going to come in the aftermath
  • 33:38 of as we try to get back on track.
  • 33:40 For us at the United Nations,
  • 33:42 working with partners in the country-level,
  • 33:44 the transforming education conversation
  • 33:47 has to happen at the local level.
  • 33:49 We should take this as an advantage
  • 33:52 in trying to build back better.
  • 33:54 When we speak to the investments that are needed
  • 33:56 in trying to achieve the 2030 agenda and the SDGs,
  • 33:59 we've got to do it differently, and perhaps
  • 34:02 make good on all the promises that we've had
  • 34:05 for young people, for communities, for countries,
  • 34:09 that education truly is the foundation,
  • 34:12 truly is the cornerstone.
  • 34:13 I think we've got to get past that
  • 34:15 and make use of this crisis.
  • 34:17 There is a silver lining there,
  • 34:18 but it's about being very clear on the steps
  • 34:21 and acknowledging that it wasn't COVID just opened up
  • 34:26 and made more urgent for us to get a response
  • 34:31 and to get it with a sense of urgency.
  • 34:34 Education can't wait. It really can't.
  • 34:36 Girls are at the forefront of losing that.
  • 34:40 That's half your population.
  • 34:41 We cannot be without half our population.
  • 34:44 This doesn't work.
  • 34:46 Maybe finally, I would say, we have spoken about
  • 34:48 not leaving anyone behind.
  • 34:50 I'm really concerned about the number of boys
  • 34:53 and young men we are leaving behind.
  • 34:55 In the end, women and girls
  • 34:57 have to live in a society with boys and men.
  • 35:00 This needs to be a place where the next generation
  • 35:03 does this together.
  • 35:05 So, while we catch up with the girls,
  • 35:07 I still want us to remember that
  • 35:08 there are many boys that are falling out
  • 35:10 and that's not good for girls or men and women as we go forth.
  • 35:16 [Rachelle Akuffo] As you mentioned,
  • 35:16 what's happening outside of the classroom in terms of mental health,
  • 35:19 being able to even have the breathing room
  • 35:21 to try and learn very important to address.
  • 35:23 Malala, you're a global role model
  • 35:25 when it comes to overcoming adversity.
  • 35:27 Unfortunately, so many have suffered incredible setbacks
  • 35:30 and continue to be impacted by them.
  • 35:33 Advice you have for young people
  • 35:34 that are also facing incredible difficulties right now.
  • 35:37 [Malala Yousafzai] I don't think young people
  • 35:41 need my advice or anyone's advice.
  • 35:43 Young people already are advocating for their rights.
  • 35:47 They are speaking out for a more equal, fairer society.
  • 35:51 They are advocating for climate change related policies.
  • 35:56 They are talking about gender equality.
  • 35:58 They're talking about their right to education.
  • 36:00 I want to bring attention to one issue.
  • 36:02 That is the situation in Afghanistan.
  • 36:05 Girls' education has been banned by the de facto government,
  • 36:08 by the Taliban.
  • 36:09 Afghanistan right now is the only country in the world
  • 36:13 where adolescent girls are prohibited
  • 36:15 from secondary education.
  • 36:17 There is no justification for this under Islamic laws
  • 36:21 or under any other cultural context either.
  • 36:25 Education is a basic human right,
  • 36:27 culturally, religiously, and morally as well.
  • 36:32 So, I am inspired by all the young women
  • 36:38 in Afghanistan and around the world
  • 36:39 who are protesting for their rights.
  • 36:41 They are raising their voices already.
  • 36:44 All I need to say to them is I stand with you.
  • 36:47 That's the message they need to hear from the world,
  • 36:49 that we stand with them,
  • 36:51 we can hear them and that we will take action,
  • 36:54 we will support them,
  • 36:55 we will give them a world
  • 36:56 where they can have access to safe, free and quality education,
  • 37:00 they can have the right to work.
  • 37:01 I think girls, children,
  • 37:03 as Amina Mohammed mentioned, like boys children, everyone.
  • 37:06 They need our attention.
  • 37:07 We need to promise
  • 37:09 a safer and a better world to our future generation.
  • 37:14 We have been taking so long.
  • 37:17 We have been taking decades and decades.
  • 37:19 We should not be living in a world
  • 37:20 where more than 250 million children are out of school.
  • 37:25 So, education is a way
  • 37:29 for having a brighter, safer future.
  • 37:32 We need to ensure that
  • 37:35 we invest in this sustainable solution for our future
  • 37:37 and ensure that all children can have access to quality education.
  • 37:41 They can have dreams, and they can make those dreams come true
  • 37:43 and make this world a better place for all.
  • 37:47 [Rachelle Akuffo] We do have just a few minutes left.
  • 37:48 Amina, I do want to get your take here.
  • 37:50 UNICEF, UNESCO and the World Bank
  • 37:52 releasing a report on learning loss
  • 37:53 that you described as an urgent wake up call.
  • 37:56 What message do you want to share with
  • 37:57 Ministers of Education or Finance
  • 37:59 about investments in education?
  • 38:02 [Amina Mohammed] I think the first thing to do is
  • 38:04 to remind everyone that education is a human right.
  • 38:07 It's fundamental.
  • 38:08 Every government, head of state and government
  • 38:11 after security, is education,
  • 38:13 without which we cannot get anything.
  • 38:15 For a Minister of Finance to be the champion of Education,
  • 38:20 not just to talk about this foundation,
  • 38:22 but to invest in it, education cannot be a trade-off.
  • 38:26 It cannot be either/or.
  • 38:27 Do we do education? Do we invest in industry?
  • 38:30 It is fundamental to everything.
  • 38:32 I think if we can have
  • 38:34 education ministers seeing education as an investment
  • 38:39 in the human being, the person, the citizen, the society,
  • 38:43 then we have a mindset change.
  • 38:46 Here again, I would say that ministers of education
  • 38:48 have to stop sitting and talking in a silo.
  • 38:51 Education matters to everything,
  • 38:53 just as we say women's rights do.
  • 38:55 Therefore, for education itself,
  • 38:57 the co-convening creating of the needs that you have
  • 39:01 in agriculture, in industry, in connectivity, in the digital world.
  • 39:07 All of that has to happen
  • 39:09 not just in the education sector, but across all sectors
  • 39:12 so that they see the value of it.
  • 39:14 When you're around a cabinet table which I have been,
  • 39:19 that you're not just talking about the education agenda,
  • 39:21 as though it is not a part of every other agenda.
  • 39:24 Both the finance ministers and ministers of education
  • 39:27 will have to have that conversation
  • 39:29 and bring it to the center of economic growth,
  • 39:32 so that you understand that GDP,
  • 39:35 the quality of which cannot be without education.
  • 39:38 As Malala has just said,
  • 39:40 It's taken decades for us to do this.
  • 39:43 What is stopping us?
  • 39:44 We cannot possibly think that we're going to grow any nation,
  • 39:48 any people without the very basics.
  • 39:50 We have an opportunity now.
  • 39:52 We are speaking about the transformation of education.
  • 39:56 We will be speaking about the financing.
  • 39:59 Every domestic budget has to put aside
  • 40:02 resources for basic services and rights.
  • 40:04 That is education, that is health, that is water and sanitation.
  • 40:08 Here, I would say to our colleagues
  • 40:11 in the finance community
  • 40:13 that we've got to think about how we leverage
  • 40:15 the growth of economies where the returns actually pay
  • 40:19 for the education, for health,
  • 40:21 and are not seen as something we have to go borrow for.
  • 40:25 It should be that first charge.
  • 40:28 Until we get that,
  • 40:29 we are not going to be talking about
  • 40:31 all people leaving no one behind.
  • 40:33 We will only be talking about the elite
  • 40:35 and certain sections of society.
  • 40:37 I think this conversation of transformation of education
  • 40:41 has to begin with policymakers.
  • 40:43 Politicians have to understand it
  • 40:45 and they have to be measured against
  • 40:47 whether they have an educated population or not
  • 40:49 and that education fits the person
  • 40:52 and fits the society,
  • 40:53 and therefore, that nation can join the comity of nations
  • 40:57 as an equal partner.
  • 40:59 [Rachelle Akuffo] Mari, we have about a minute left.
  • 41:01 I want to get your take on
  • 41:03 how you see investing in people
  • 41:04 catalyzing a greener, more resilient, inclusive development
  • 41:08 and how perhaps digital technologies
  • 41:10 and youth aspirations factor into this.
  • 41:12 [Mari Pangestu] I think a lot has been said
  • 41:15 and I'm in wide agreement with what Amina has been saying.
  • 41:18 I think investing in human capital is key for development
  • 41:22 and also, for inclusiveness.
  • 41:24 Whether it's making sure girls can get to school,
  • 41:26 making sure that no one is left behind.
  • 41:29 A holistic approach on human capital,
  • 41:32 it's education, it's health, it's food and nutrition,
  • 41:36 it's the ability to be connected in a digital way.
  • 41:39 So, it has to be a holistic approach
  • 41:42 and it has to be the priority for the country
  • 41:45 because it is about longer term development
  • 41:47 including green, resilient and inclusive development.
  • 41:50 I think here, just because you mentioned youth,
  • 41:54 I think we are in a situation
  • 41:57 where we had a lot of adolescents,
  • 42:00 boys and girls dropping out of school
  • 42:02 and in a slow growth environment.
  • 42:05 The issue of being able to employ youth,
  • 42:08 I think is going to be a very big global problem.
  • 42:11 How do we design skills upgrading to be able to have
  • 42:17 this youth be able to either find jobs or to become entrepreneurs?
  • 42:22 I think digital connectivity is one of the key issues,
  • 42:25 but the fact is we have a digital divide still,
  • 42:28 2.9 billion people are still not connected
  • 42:31 and it's much higher in Africa.
  • 42:33 I think it's something like 70%
  • 42:35 are not connected to the internet
  • 42:37 and 43% for developing countries.
  • 42:39 It's about the connectivity
  • 42:41 and once you're connected, digital literacy.
  • 42:44 What do you do to get value added from it?
  • 42:47 Also really make them inclusive
  • 42:50 as part of the education and the job opportunities
  • 42:54 and the entrepreneurs.
  • 42:55 So, it has to be combined with also the ability to access markets,
  • 43:00 access finance and so on.
  • 43:02 I think the final thing I would say
  • 43:03 is related to what's the message for policymakers.
  • 43:07 I think Amina is absolutely right,
  • 43:09 we really need to get to the top of political decision-maker,
  • 43:14 this is crucial for the country's development
  • 43:16 and it requires a holistic approach
  • 43:19 in terms of the interventions needed.
  • 43:21 It is really important the domestic resource mobilization
  • 43:26 that goes around it, which can be complemented by
  • 43:29 international cooperation.
  • 43:31 But it needs to start with the political commitment
  • 43:33 and the ability of the country itself
  • 43:36 to come up with a holistic program.
  • 43:38 It has to be a combination of finance ministers,
  • 43:41 education ministers, health ministers,
  • 43:43 digital-related ministers.
  • 43:47 It has to come together because you want to make sure
  • 43:50 the financing goes to where it will have the most effect
  • 43:53 and transform the education system, as Amina said.
  • 43:58 [Rachelle Akuffo] I do want to thank our panel.
  • 43:59 Obviously, the challenges are many,
  • 44:01 but you've given us a lot to think about today.
  • 44:03 We do appreciate it.
  • 44:04 Thank you once again.
  • 44:05 [Malala Yousafzai] Thank you.
  • 44:06 [Amina Mohammed] Thank you very much.
  • 44:08 [MONTELÍBANO, COLOMBIA]
  • 44:08 [Jairo] Hi, I am Jairo, in Montelíbano Colombia
  • 44:11 and you are watching the World Bank Group-IMF Spring Meetings.
  • 44:18 [Rachelle Akuffo] If you've just joined us,
  • 44:20 I'm Rachelle Akuffo
  • 44:21 and you're watching Human Capital at the Crossroad.
  • 44:24 A reminder that you can join the conversation
  • 44:26 on today's event at any time using the hashtag #InvestInPeople.
  • 44:31 We're also asking you to take part in a special poll.
  • 44:34 Now, the pandemic has been a major setback to human capital progress.
  • 44:38 What do you think is the most pressing
  • 44:40 priority to help people achieve their potential?
  • 44:43 Is it A, quality, inclusive education? or B, stronger health systems?
  • 44:49 Do you think C, equitable social protection is the key?
  • 44:53 or is it D, putting women and girls at the heart of solutions?
  • 44:58 And your last option is E, jobs and private sector investment?
  • 45:03 We're asking which of these five options
  • 45:06 is the most important in helping people achieve their full potential?
  • 45:10 You can cast your vote right now
  • 45:12 at live.worldbank.org
  • 45:14 and we'll bring you the results at the end of this event.
  • 45:17 [LIVE.WORLDBANK.ORG]
  • 45:17 Now, strong and accessible health and social protection systems
  • 45:21 help build, employ and protect human capital.
  • 45:24 Let's take a look at how the World Bank has been helping developing countries
  • 45:28 protect and invest in their people, especially in times of crisis.
  • 45:33 [QUALITY HEALTH CARE & STRONG HUMAN CAPITAL GO HAND-IN-HAND.]
  • 45:37 We acted like frontline soldiers,
  • 45:40 risking our own health and that of our family.
  • 45:48 [PHILIPPINES]
  • 45:50 [The World Bank Group is supporting countries globally
  • 45:53 in their COVID-19 vaccines deployment.]
  • 45:55 [From cities to hard-to-reach rural areas...]
  • 45:59 [LIZ ARELLO, VILLAGE HEALTH WORKER] To be vaccinated means to be protected,
  • 46:01 and we can start getting back to our normal lives.
  • 46:04 [ECUADOR]
  • 46:06 [We are supporting national communication strategies,
  • 46:08 to reinforce vaccine uptake.]
  • 46:09 This is my COVID vaccination card.
  • 46:12 It represents my commitment
  • 46:14 as a responsible citizen, to myself and my country.
  • 46:20 [The World Bank is also helping countries strengthen their health systems.]
  • 46:23 [BENIN]
  • 46:26 The government of Benin, with the support of The World Bank,
  • 46:29 through the REDISSE project,
  • 46:31 has made it possible for us to not only strengthen
  • 46:33 the technical support center of the previously established laboratory,
  • 46:35 but also set up 12 other laboratories.
  • 46:37 [As a result, Benin has closed a 20-year gap in disease surveillance and management.]
  • 46:44 [MONGOLIA]
  • 46:47 There was a lack of breathing aid devices in the intensive care unit.
  • 46:54 And this was purchased
  • 46:56 with World Bank financing, which was very helpful.
  • 47:02 The assistance provided to us for fighting against the pandemic
  • 47:06 will continue to provide the foundation for providing quality health care services
  • 47:10 and positively impact future health care services.
  • 47:13 [TAJIKISTAN]
  • 47:16 [Ensuring that every woman and child have access to health care
  • 47:19 is at the heart of our work.]
  • 47:20 Public health, particularly maternal and child health
  • 47:23 [ZULFIYA ABDUSAMATZODA, DEPUTY MINISTER OF HEALTH]
  • 47:24 [ZULFIYA ABDUSAMATZODA, DEPUTY MINISTER OF HEALTH]
  • 47:26 of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan.
  • 47:28 A healthy mother gives birth to a healthy child.
  • 47:32 [Human capital is central to a green, resilient, and inclusive recovery.]
  • 47:36 [The World Bank is helping countries
  • 47:39 to protect and invest in their people for a more prosperous future.]
  • 47:44 [Rachelle Akuffo] The pandemic has caused severe disruptions
  • 47:46 to routine and essential health services,
  • 47:49 resulting in devastating impact on health outcomes for people,
  • 47:53 especially on the the most vulnerable.
  • 47:55 But as we've just seen, it also presents an opportunity
  • 47:58 to strengthen health systems as well as social protection.
  • 48:02 Our next panel discussion explores
  • 48:03 how building this resilience from shocks can deliver better human capital outcomes.
  • 48:10 We're now joined by Senator Dr. Sania Nishtar from Pakistan,
  • 48:14 Gustavo Béliz, Argentina's Secretary of Strategic Affairs,
  • 48:18 and Dr. Morena Makhoana, the CEO of Biovac,
  • 48:21 a South African based vaccine manufacturer.
  • 48:24 A big thank you to all our guests for joining us today.
  • 48:28 First, Senator Nishtar, I want to start with you.
  • 48:30 There are linkages between health
  • 48:32 and social protection systems.
  • 48:34 How do they work together
  • 48:35 to protect and build human capital in Pakistan?
  • 48:38 In particular, tell us about the impact COVID-19 has had
  • 48:42 and the role technology has played in delivering services.
  • 48:47 Well, thank you very much.
  • 48:48 Firstly, let me make a focal point
  • 48:50 about the synergies between health and social protection.
  • 48:55 Well, firstly,
  • 48:56 social protection is a battle against low income,
  • 48:58 and we know that low income is...
  • 49:00 we know that income is one of the strongest determinants
  • 49:04 of health status achievements.
  • 49:06 Secondly,
  • 49:08 social protections can also protect families
  • 49:10 from the negative coping strategies
  • 49:13 which are part of possible shocks and economic crises.
  • 49:17 Thirdly, social protection can significantly contribute
  • 49:22 to human capital building
  • 49:24 through ensuring financial access to education,
  • 49:26 financial access to health care and nutrition.
  • 49:29 And through this, it can really help
  • 49:31 improving health and nutrition outcomes.
  • 49:34 In the fourth place,
  • 49:36 social protection can really help
  • 49:38 a world catastrophic health expenditures
  • 49:42 and protect people from foregoing health care.
  • 49:45 We were very cognizant of all these four linkages
  • 49:48 when we established Pakistan's largest social protection program
  • 49:52 called Ehsaas which means compassion in our local language.
  • 49:56 We used a number of different programmatic levers
  • 50:00 to improve health outcomes
  • 50:01 through a social protection centered program
  • 50:04 and through the Social Protection Ministry.
  • 50:06 For instance, we've got
  • 50:08 an unconditional cash transfer program for eight million families.
  • 50:11 Research tells us that
  • 50:14 the bulk of the money is used to buy food rations.
  • 50:17 Secondly, we've got a nationwide
  • 50:20 health and nutrition condition cash transfer program
  • 50:22 and a nationwide education condition cash transfer program.
  • 50:27 You'll be pleased to know that, in both of these cases,
  • 50:30 we offer a higher stepping amount for the third child.
  • 50:33 We also have a fund-based health financing system
  • 50:36 to complement the country's health insurance initiative.
  • 50:39 Then we have a shock responsive registry,
  • 50:42 which is brand new and has just been created.
  • 50:45 Very quickly in COVID,
  • 50:47 through the infrastructure that we built,
  • 50:49 we were able to reach out to 15 million individuals,
  • 50:53 15 million families,
  • 50:55 and we used technologies and a process
  • 50:59 that was end-to-end embedded in technologies.
  • 51:02 I'm very humbled to let you know that
  • 51:04 ours is the fastest deployment globally
  • 51:06 and the third largest
  • 51:08 in terms of the percentage of population reached.
  • 51:13 [Rachelle Akuffo] Secretary Béliz, I want to bring you in here.
  • 51:15 Sustained human capital development requires
  • 51:18 a whole of government approach.
  • 51:19 How is Argentina prioritizing human capital progress
  • 51:22 across health, social protection and other key sectors?
  • 51:28 [Interpreter] Integral human development
  • 51:30 is the essence of the program we are launching.
  • 51:34 Instead of talking only about human capital
  • 51:37 we talked about philosophical concept
  • 51:41 of integral human development.
  • 51:44 We are inspired by what our Pope is doing globally.
  • 51:50 It's a philosophy that he is fostering
  • 51:53 which is improving after the pandemic
  • 51:56 and that's how we are approaching our public policy.
  • 51:59 In the case of Argentina, we dedicated very important funds
  • 52:02 to the prevention of social damage caused by the pandemic.
  • 52:08 We've invested more than 6 points of our GDP
  • 52:13 in social assistance.
  • 52:15 Also, one billion dollars in an emergency nutrition plan.
  • 52:21 We also covered 60% of the population, the working population
  • 52:27 with subsidies for employment, for businesses
  • 52:31 so that we could actually prevent a wave of massive unemployment
  • 52:38 We also strengthened programs to assist families.
  • 52:43 This program is called Universal Child Allowance
  • 52:50 and it includes health services and education services.
  • 52:54 In the midst of all this, we managed to restructure our public debt
  • 52:58 the foreign one and the domestic one
  • 53:00 with the International Monetary Fund as well as with private creditors
  • 53:04 In 2021, we managed to really...
  • 53:11 We manage to see the results of our post-pandemic economic recovery.
  • 53:17 Thanks to the measures implemented in 2020,
  • 53:19 our economy managed to grow more than 10% of our GDP in 2021
  • 53:27 and we decrease our unemployment rate to 7%
  • 53:32 and we increase investment by 32.9%.
  • 53:37 We did this together with the private sector
  • 53:42 and mainly with the technological sector.
  • 53:47 Argentina is very strong in this industry
  • 53:50 and that is why comprehensive human development
  • 53:53 has to come hand in hand with technological humanism
  • 54:00 so that all these skills are for the common good.
  • 54:05 [Rachelle Akuffo] Senator Nishtar, I want to bring you back in here.
  • 54:07 After decades of progress,
  • 54:09 we do see a sharp rise now in poverty
  • 54:11 that's been detrimental to Human Capital.
  • 54:14 Countries also facing, of course, shrinking budgets.
  • 54:17 How can we help arrest some of these losses now,
  • 54:20 as well as set the stage for poverty alleviation
  • 54:22 and recovery at this point?
  • 54:25 [Sania Nishtar] You're absolutely right,
  • 54:27 because the MDG on poverty eradication
  • 54:31 was achieved ahead of time,
  • 54:32 but, with the corresponding sustainable development goal,
  • 54:35 we are sliding backwards.
  • 54:37 I think the answer to this
  • 54:39 is that governments have to commit to
  • 54:42 increasing investments in social protection,
  • 54:45 and not look at it as a cost,
  • 54:49 but as an investment in the future of generations.
  • 54:53 I can give you the example from my own country,
  • 54:56 because during COVID, as I've already mentioned,
  • 55:00 we reached out to 15 million families
  • 55:04 and we executed a very large cash transfer program.
  • 55:08 But it was during the initial stages of COVID
  • 55:12 that we decided to increase our investments
  • 55:15 in social protection and poverty alleviation going forward,
  • 55:19 and we did not drop the ball
  • 55:21 on implementation.
  • 55:23 Over the last two and a half years,
  • 55:27 we have brought to fruition the upscaling of a health
  • 55:31 and nutrition conditional cash transfer program nationwide.
  • 55:35 We have successfully upscaled
  • 55:37 our education condition cash transfer program nationwide.
  • 55:41 Even while COVID was arranging
  • 55:43 and we were completely consumed in the execution
  • 55:46 of the cash transfer program.
  • 55:47 We've completed the building
  • 55:50 of a new shock-responsive national socioeconomic registry,
  • 55:55 which will allow us to preposition
  • 55:58 cash transfers during subsequent shocks.
  • 56:01 And we've already tested it
  • 56:02 during an earthquake as well.
  • 56:06 We're also making and continuing to make
  • 56:09 these strategic enhancements in data and digital systems,
  • 56:12 which will bolster our ability not only
  • 56:15 to upscale social protection systems,
  • 56:17 but continue to respond more effectively during shocks.
  • 56:24 It's all about political will.
  • 56:28 It's all about investments,
  • 56:30 and it's all about due diligence
  • 56:32 and seriousness in implementation.
  • 56:36 [Rachelle Akuffo] Given how much of a wake up call COVID has been,
  • 56:39 Secretary Béliz, vaccine procurement and deployment
  • 56:42 are crucial to combating not just the pandemic,
  • 56:45 but obviously economic recovery as well.
  • 56:47 It requires cooperation across countries,
  • 56:49 multilateral organizations, and the private sector.
  • 56:52 How did it work in Argentina,
  • 56:54 and what lessons are you able to share?
  • 56:57 [Interpreter] The lessons are many.
  • 57:01 Very interestingly, Argentina developed technological capacity
  • 57:05 of our own but also linked to added value chains.
  • 57:11 Nationally, we managed to develop tests
  • 57:15 to detect COVID-19 in five minutes.
  • 57:18 We are also developing trials for our own vaccine
  • 57:25 with our universities and the technological sector
  • 57:29 We've also joined the supply chain to work with AstraZeneca.
  • 57:35 We've donated vaccines to less developed countries.
  • 57:43 We understand there is a difference
  • 57:46 between rich countries and, low and middle-income countries
  • 57:51 but we all need to have access to vaccines.
  • 57:53 That's a common global good.
  • 57:56 I would like to highlight the assistance
  • 57:57 we received from the World Bank to acquire vaccines,
  • 58:00 this was an effort that we truly value.
  • 58:04 I would also like to nee to understand the concept of public health.
  • 58:10 This has to be also comprehensive.
  • 58:13 We need to address public health at a global level,
  • 58:19 we are talking about preserving our environment.
  • 58:22 In this regard, in the case of Latin America,
  • 58:25 Regional and multilateral development banks that
  • 58:31 have a presence in our continent, need to capitalize
  • 58:37 taking advantage of the SDRs issued
  • 58:41 by the International Monetary Fund.
  • 58:45 This is a great opportunity to capitalize our banks
  • 58:48 and make sure that a very important percentage
  • 58:52 of those resources are used in order to strengthen
  • 58:57 comprehensive human development and to preserve the health of our planet
  • 59:02 through developing environmental policies that consolidate health
  • 59:11 in global terms.
  • 59:14 [Rachelle Akuffo] I do want to make sure we bring in Morena here.
  • 59:15 As we keep hearing about this holistic approach,
  • 59:18 what can the private sector do
  • 59:19 to help arrest human capital losses and catalyze the recovery?
  • 59:23 What does the private sector needs from the governments
  • 59:26 to be able to fully contribute to better human capital?
  • 59:31 [Morena Makhoana] I think it's important to acknowledge
  • 59:34 that I think both sectors need each other,
  • 59:36 both private and public sector.
  • 59:40 However, I think globally it's clear that
  • 59:43 the private sector is best at executing
  • 59:46 and being a little bit more efficient.
  • 59:49 Therefore, I think if there is a partnership
  • 59:51 that can be drawn, where the public sector
  • 59:55 can provide the framework that enable the private sector
  • 59:59 to work more efficiently and to be able to harness
  • 01:00:02 the type of human capital that it needs.
  • 01:00:05 In that way, that is probably the best use of human capital,
  • 01:00:08 but also the innovation really has come out of private sector
  • 01:00:12 and what human capability can be ahead.
  • 01:00:16 However, that cannot, as I said, work on its own.
  • 01:00:20 It will need to work under a policy guidance
  • 01:00:23 from the public sector, but also in a manner
  • 01:00:26 that enables policies and the framework
  • 01:00:31 and ecosystem in which private sector can work in.
  • 01:00:36 [Rachelle Akuffo] I know our guests today
  • 01:00:38 have shared a lot of useful information
  • 01:00:39 and really combating these challenges.
  • 01:00:41 We do appreciate your time today,
  • 01:00:43 Senator Nishtar, Secretary Béliz and of course, Morena.
  • 01:00:45 Thank you so much for joining us today.
  • 01:00:47 A lot of people, I'm sure, will be inspired
  • 01:00:49 by a lot of the innovations that we've been hearing
  • 01:00:52 in terms of ways to possibly strengthen
  • 01:00:54 the health and social protection systems everywhere.
  • 01:00:57 Thank you so much.
  • 01:00:59 [ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA]
  • 01:01:00 [Donoz] Hello, I am Donoz in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  • 01:01:02 and you're watching the World Bank Group-IMF Spring Meetings.
  • 01:01:09 [Rachelle Akuffo] Young people have been challenged
  • 01:01:11 in many ways throughout this pandemic.
  • 01:01:13 yet they remain optimistic and have ideas
  • 01:01:16 for how things can be improved.
  • 01:01:18 We ask young people around the world to share their aspirations
  • 01:01:21 and some ideas of what's needed to achieve their potential.
  • 01:01:25 Here's what they had to say.
  • 01:01:27 [DON NYAGUDI, KENYA]
  • 01:01:28 Hello everyone. My name is Don Nyagudi.
  • 01:01:30 [XINYU LIU, CHINA] Hi, I'm Xinyu.
  • 01:01:31 [GLORIA AGYARE, GHANA] My name is Gloria Agyare.
  • 01:01:33 [NANDHAKUMAR, INDIA] Let me share my ideas with you.
  • 01:01:35 [What do you NEED to fulfill YOUR potential?]
  • 01:01:38 [Gloria Agyare] We require the right support,
  • 01:01:40 an enabling environment and youth inclusion
  • 01:01:43 at all decision-making levels.
  • 01:01:45 [Nandhakumar] We need to develop our public transport facility
  • 01:01:47 with better connectivity and the best time management.
  • 01:01:51 [CHIJIOKE AKUMA, NIGERIA] Access to energy.
  • 01:01:53 I mean safe and clean energy.
  • 01:01:55 Then, access to the internet.
  • 01:01:59 Then, access to tech skills.
  • 01:02:02 [PATTY DIAZ ROMERO] I firmly believe that
  • 01:02:03 the most important issues are education,
  • 01:02:06 the use of technologies
  • 01:02:08 [AHMAD JAMAL WATTOO, PAKISTAN] We need to finally take
  • 01:02:10 climate change seriously.
  • 01:02:13 [HOW can your lives be improved?]
  • 01:02:16 [JESSICA HAINGOTIANA] Acknowledge the skills
  • 01:02:17 of the active population
  • 01:02:19 by organizing a training program for small businesses
  • 01:02:23 in order to promote entrepreneurship
  • 01:02:26 [Don Nyagudi] Increasing the amount of foreign direct investment into Kenya
  • 01:02:30 and channeling those funds to the businesses
  • 01:02:32 of young people who struggle to access capital
  • 01:02:34 due to lack of enough collateral and guarantee.
  • 01:02:37 [YASMIN HAMDY MOHAMED, EGYPT] Through providing comprehensive health coverage
  • 01:02:40 and engaging youth in improving
  • 01:02:41 education circumstances
  • 01:02:43 empowering young women by granting them
  • 01:02:44 leading roles in local communities.
  • 01:02:46 [SARAFINA, GHANA] Prevent child marriage
  • 01:02:48 to stop abuse and violation.
  • 01:02:50 [VALENTINA CARDENAS, COLOMBIA] Using technology to close the inequality gaps
  • 01:02:54 and to give access to everyone.
  • 01:02:55 [Xinyu Liu] Workshops should be arranged
  • 01:02:57 in the communities for the people
  • 01:02:59 who have lost their jobs because of the pandemic.
  • 01:03:02 This could equip them with more skills
  • 01:03:04 to adapt themselves to the changing job market.
  • 01:03:08 [NOURAN KHALED, EGYPT] Investing in people.
  • 01:03:09 [MUSA IBRAHIM, NIGERIA] Invest in human capital.
  • 01:03:11 [FAISA SYAHLA SABILA, INDONESIA] For me, for you and for generations to come.
  • 01:03:14 [Gloria Agyare] The time to invest in people is now.
  • 01:03:20 [Rachelle Akuffo] We heard several of those young people
  • 01:03:22 talking about the importance of skills and training.
  • 01:03:25 It's more important than ever to equip them for the jobs of the future.
  • 01:03:28 Our next two guests have been involved in just that,
  • 01:03:31 building skills and leveraging technology to create jobs and opportunities.
  • 01:03:39 We're joined now by Zeena Majali,
  • 01:03:41 the Co-founder of Crystel,
  • 01:03:43 a pioneering business process outsourcing firm
  • 01:03:45 in Jordan that makes gender equality
  • 01:03:47 and competitiveness a priority.
  • 01:03:50 And Beatrice Mahuru, the Founder and CEO of GLaD,
  • 01:03:53 a management and PR firm in Papua New Guinea.
  • 01:03:56 Beatrice is also a mentor
  • 01:03:58 to marginalized youth in her country.
  • 01:04:00 A very warm welcome to you both.
  • 01:04:02 Zeena, I'll start with you.
  • 01:04:04 You created a diverse and inclusive workforce at Crystel.
  • 01:04:08 Was that always part of your inspiration
  • 01:04:09 and vision for the company?
  • 01:04:11 What obstacles did you face along the way?
  • 01:04:14 [Zeena Majali] Thanks, Michelle.
  • 01:04:16 That was always our vision.
  • 01:04:18 We started this company when we were 23 years old.
  • 01:04:21 Our vision was always to start the first call center in Jordan,
  • 01:04:27 an independent call center that employs youth
  • 01:04:30 and a lot of females and be able to create
  • 01:04:33 a very safe workplace for them to work in.
  • 01:04:37 Thankfully, we've been successful in doing so.
  • 01:04:41 Today we employ thousand Jordanian youth,
  • 01:04:44 55% of which are females.
  • 01:04:46 It's a very safe place for them to work in.
  • 01:04:49 It gave all these people the opportunity
  • 01:04:52 to find a safe place to work in.
  • 01:04:55 That has always definitely been our vision
  • 01:04:57 and we're happy to see it coming to life.
  • 01:05:01 [Rachelle Akuffo] Certainly safety is a key issue
  • 01:05:03 when it comes to even wanting to be in a place of work.
  • 01:05:05 You do want to feel secure where you are.
  • 01:05:07 [Rachelle Akuffo] Beatrice, I want to bring you in here.
  • 01:05:08 You support young people as they develop the technical and soft skills
  • 01:05:12 necessary to realize their potential.
  • 01:05:15 What would you say are the most in demand or in need soft skills?
  • 01:05:20 [Beatrice Mahuru] Amazingly, in Papua New Guinea,
  • 01:05:22 with over one thousand different languages
  • 01:05:25 and eight hundred different cultures,
  • 01:05:26 communication is the core soft skill that's required
  • 01:05:30 to get them through their day to day lives.
  • 01:05:33 They are living in a world where technology is fast paced,
  • 01:05:39 but they come from communities where time stands still.
  • 01:05:42 So, communication is an in need skill.
  • 01:05:46 I think adaptability, therefore,
  • 01:05:48 is also critical for them in moving ahead.
  • 01:05:51 Conflict resolution is definitely
  • 01:05:54 one of those soft skills that's required
  • 01:05:57 both to manage workplace conversations
  • 01:06:01 as well as their communities back at home.
  • 01:06:03 And I feel very strongly, therefore,
  • 01:06:06 critical thinking is another soft skill
  • 01:06:09 that's necessary for youth of today,
  • 01:06:11 particularly here in Papua New Guinea.
  • 01:06:14 [Rachelle Akuffo] As we talk about skills
  • 01:06:15 that are important to recognize perhaps some skills
  • 01:06:17 that don't traditionally get as much attention.
  • 01:06:19 Zeena, there are certain characteristics
  • 01:06:21 I'm sure that you tend to look for
  • 01:06:23 when you're hiring employees.
  • 01:06:25 In terms of what you think education systems could do to help ensure
  • 01:06:28 that students are well equipped for job opportunities,
  • 01:06:31 What can you share with us?
  • 01:06:33 [Zeena Majali] As Beatrice said as well,
  • 01:06:36 there are a lot of skills that
  • 01:06:38 we're looking for with our youth,
  • 01:06:40 a lot that has to do with critical thinking
  • 01:06:43 knowing how to solve problems.
  • 01:06:45 Really, what we're always looking at is trying to get our youth
  • 01:06:50 to understand how important it is to work today,
  • 01:06:53 especially in countries like ours.
  • 01:06:55 We want them to understand
  • 01:06:57 that females play a major role in our economy and our society.
  • 01:07:01 And we want them to understand that
  • 01:07:04 no matter what you do, you always need to find a job.
  • 01:07:08 Hopefully if you're married,
  • 01:07:10 for example, you have a dual income,
  • 01:07:12 and that's something that's essential.
  • 01:07:14 So, we want them to always realize
  • 01:07:15 and understand how important it is to work
  • 01:07:18 and while at work, to always be aggressive, competitive,
  • 01:07:23 and to try to do their best
  • 01:07:25 just to reach their dreams and be able to add
  • 01:07:30 all the amazing impact to our economy and society.
  • 01:07:35 One skill that we're always looking for,
  • 01:07:38 in particular, is language skills.
  • 01:07:40 I would say in such a globalized world,
  • 01:07:44 we need our youth to speak perfect English.
  • 01:07:47 I would say this is extremely needed in our education system today
  • 01:07:52 to be able to serve customers from all around the world.
  • 01:07:55 We need many languages,
  • 01:07:57 but specifically the English language is something that is essential
  • 01:08:00 for us to be able to hire more people today here in Jordan.
  • 01:08:05 [Rachelle Akuffo] It could be difficult,
  • 01:08:06 depending on how you're socialized,
  • 01:08:08 to really build the confidence in those things.
  • 01:08:11 So then, Beatrice, in terms of policies,
  • 01:08:12 what do you think are the most critical policies
  • 01:08:14 that are needed to reach the most vulnerable
  • 01:08:17 and bridge these gender gaps
  • 01:08:18 and really unlock human capital potential?
  • 01:08:23 [Beatrice Mahuru] I feel very strongly that youth empowerment is a policy
  • 01:08:26 that needs to be put in place.
  • 01:08:28 When you look at Papua New Guinea,
  • 01:08:30 where education starts
  • 01:08:32 and there's over two thousand young children in elementary,
  • 01:08:36 and as the pyramid closes up for university graduates,
  • 01:08:42 we only have 5 thousand spaces available for students to enter.
  • 01:08:47 There's a huge gap for skills
  • 01:08:50 where youths are sadly unemployed
  • 01:08:54 and don't have the skills either.
  • 01:08:56 So, youth empowerment policy is really critical
  • 01:08:59 for moving them forward in this world.
  • 01:09:02 I feel also that GESI policy,
  • 01:09:04 the Gender Equity & Social Inclusion Policy
  • 01:09:07 is another critical policy that needs to be looked at
  • 01:09:11 because women right around the world,
  • 01:09:14 and I think particularly here in Papua New Guinea
  • 01:09:16 where we are a patriarchal society,
  • 01:09:19 the policies are there to protect us,
  • 01:09:22 our rights, our ability to participate
  • 01:09:26 without fear or favor.
  • 01:09:29 I think those are critical in today's age
  • 01:09:31 especially for youth,
  • 01:09:33 as they move forward, finding their feet.
  • 01:09:36 I think these two are really important.
  • 01:09:38 And because women in traditional Papua New Guinea
  • 01:09:42 are looking at breaking glass ceilings,
  • 01:09:45 the gender equality is also critical.
  • 01:09:48 So, they have equal pay for the amount of hours
  • 01:09:50 that they put in.
  • 01:09:53 [Rachelle Akuffo] Zeena, in terms of what you'd like,
  • 01:09:55 in terms of listening to, perhaps
  • 01:09:58 seeing what the finance ministers
  • 01:09:59 who might be listening in on this
  • 01:10:00 and messaging that you'd like them to understand
  • 01:10:03 about why it is so important to invest in this space,
  • 01:10:06 when you think of where the public sector
  • 01:10:08 comes in and the private sector.
  • 01:10:09 What message do you have for them?
  • 01:10:11 [Zeena Majali] It has always been our message,
  • 01:10:14 since the first day,
  • 01:10:16 that we want everybody's support for our sector.
  • 01:10:20 We believe that this is a great stepping stone
  • 01:10:22 for our youth and our females
  • 01:10:25 to start stepping into the workplace
  • 01:10:27 and either growing in this space
  • 01:10:30 or going into maybe something that's more specific
  • 01:10:32 to their area of education or expertise.
  • 01:10:35 But it's a great place
  • 01:10:37 for hundreds of thousands of youth to start
  • 01:10:42 and for all these females to start here with us as well.
  • 01:10:45 Hopefully, they either grow with us
  • 01:10:47 and other companies alike
  • 01:10:49 or they go into something that's more specific for them.
  • 01:10:52 We feel the more we invest, the more we can grow this space
  • 01:10:56 and the lower unemployment rates we can reach
  • 01:10:59 which is essential for us at this point.
  • 01:11:02 [Rachelle Akuffo] Beatrice, for you, obviously you have the ear
  • 01:11:04 of a lot of youth in your country as well.
  • 01:11:06 Tell finance ministers what young people in your country say
  • 01:11:09 they need in terms of skills and why investing in them is so critical.
  • 01:11:15 [Beatrice Mahuru] Basic finance literacy, I think, is a skill
  • 01:11:19 that's really required for use of today.
  • 01:11:22 As I said, especially in Papua New Guinea
  • 01:11:24 where they've not been able to complete their education.
  • 01:11:28 Just basic financial literacy is really critical for them.
  • 01:11:31 So, Finance Ministers, the Central Bank,
  • 01:11:34 if they can look at inclusion for lending money
  • 01:11:40 to this youth who are looking at
  • 01:11:42 small and medium enterprise businesses,
  • 01:11:44 these are critical and they can't go into it successfully
  • 01:11:48 if they don't have the basic finance skills.
  • 01:11:50 I'd love for our influential people in the areas of finance
  • 01:11:56 to consider that and also governance.
  • 01:11:59 I think governance is really critical
  • 01:12:01 as a skill for young youth that are going into enterprise
  • 01:12:05 because they don't have the skill set to join organizations.
  • 01:12:10 They should be encouraged to start their own.
  • 01:12:14 [Rachelle Akuffo] We certainly do appreciate
  • 01:12:15 you joining us today with your insights, Zeena and Beatrice.
  • 01:12:18 Obviously, a lot of impressive stories and successes
  • 01:12:21 that a lot of people will be looking up to you.
  • 01:12:23 We do appreciate your time for sharing that with our audience today.
  • 01:12:26 I'm sure your insights and experiences
  • 01:12:28 will also provide a lot of good lessons
  • 01:12:30 for everybody listening.
  • 01:12:31 Thank you so much.
  • 01:12:33 [Rachelle Akuffo] I'm joined by Sri Sridhar,
  • 01:12:35 who's been following the conversation online and on social media.
  • 01:12:39 Sri, what have people been saying?
  • 01:12:41 [Sri Sridhar] Thanks. Great to see you.
  • 01:12:43 People are joining us from all over the world.
  • 01:12:45 Here's a snapshot from where they're joining us,
  • 01:12:47 from Tanzania, India, France, the United Kingdom, Uganda,
  • 01:12:52 Indonesia, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and, of course, here in the United States.
  • 01:12:54 [Srimathi Sridhar, Communications Associate, World Bank Group]
  • 01:12:56 They're using the hashtag for today's event, #InvestinPeople.
  • 01:12:59 They're joining us on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and also Instagram.
  • 01:13:04 They're talking about the ways in which countries can better invest
  • 01:13:07 in people and support communities to recover from the pandemic.
  • 01:13:11 Now, one particular topic of interest has been education today.
  • 01:13:16 People are stressing the need to recover from learning losses
  • 01:13:19 during the pandemic and also invest in quality learning.
  • 01:13:22 Let's take a look at some of the actual comments
  • 01:13:25 that have been coming in on social.
  • 01:13:27 First up on LinkedIn,
  • 01:13:28 Sara from Tanzania says that "investing in a nation's human capital
  • 01:13:32 goes hand in hand with promoting and protecting
  • 01:13:36 every citizen's human rights."
  • 01:13:38 Pretty powerful statement there, I think.
  • 01:13:40 Up next, we have a comment from Facebook.
  • 01:13:44 Michael in Nigeria who says, "I believe that quality education anchored
  • 01:13:48 on quality learning is the bedrock of development."
  • 01:13:51 Touching a bit on how education is
  • 01:13:55 really a focus of today's conversation online.
  • 01:13:57 Finally on Instagram, Wilford Williams says that "education is
  • 01:14:02 a key component of human capital
  • 01:14:04 and investments in education, health and other areas
  • 01:14:08 are crucial for economic growth."
  • 01:14:10 A lot of good engagement coming in today.
  • 01:14:13 [Rachelle Akuffo] I do believe this is where
  • 01:14:14 we do have some of the results from the poll overall.
  • 01:14:17 [Sri Sridhar] Yeah. Today's poll asks,
  • 01:14:19 what is the most pressing priority to help people achieve their potential?
  • 01:14:25 Five options here.
  • 01:14:27 Is it a quality, inclusive education?
  • 01:14:29 Is it stronger health systems,
  • 01:14:31 equitable social protection, women and girls at the heart of solutions,
  • 01:14:36 or is it jobs and private sector investment?
  • 01:14:39 These are all really good options to choose from.
  • 01:14:42 It's hard to pick a top priority.
  • 01:14:44 But what would be yours?
  • 01:14:46 [Rachelle Akuffo] Given how many children we saw at home,
  • 01:14:50 what we see with the skills gap,
  • 01:14:52 I would say quality inclusive education, A, but, as you mentioned,
  • 01:14:56 a lot of incredibly important options that really do need to work together.
  • 01:14:59 [Sri Sridhar] Why don't we see how people voted?
  • 01:15:01 We had nearly 1300 people take part in today's poll.
  • 01:15:05 Answers coming up here to the right, 43% of people do believe
  • 01:15:09 that the most pressing priority is a quality inclusive education,
  • 01:15:13 12% stronger, health systems,
  • 01:15:15 14% equitable social protection,
  • 01:15:18 9% women and girls at the heart of solutions,
  • 01:15:21 and finally, 22% of people, jobs and private sector investment.
  • 01:15:25 As you can see here, much like you were saying,
  • 01:15:27 a lot of people believe that a quality inclusive education is
  • 01:15:30 the most pressing priority.
  • 01:15:32 [Rachelle Akuffo] You would think, because of COVID,
  • 01:15:34 that the stronger health systems would perhaps rate a little bit higher.
  • 01:15:38 [Sri Sridhar] That's what I was leaning towards to.
  • 01:15:39 But like you said, these are all just such important areas.
  • 01:15:42 [Rachelle Akuffo] Indeed. Thank you so much.
  • 01:15:44 Very important poll. Thank you everyone for voting.
  • 01:15:46 Sri Sridhar, thank you.
  • 01:15:48 [Sri Sridhar] Thanks.
  • 01:15:49 [PORT VILA, VANUATU]
  • 01:15:49 Hello, [foreign language] everyone.
  • 01:15:51 I am Leisenda in Fort Villa, Vanuatu,
  • 01:15:55 and you're watching the World Bank Group-IMF Spring meetings.
  • 01:16:02 [HUMAN CAPITAL AT THE CROSSROADS]
  • 01:16:04 [Rachelle Akuffo] I'm joined in the atrium of the World Bank Group
  • 01:16:07 by Iffath Sharif, Manager of the World Bank's Human Capital Project,
  • 01:16:10 and Charles Dalton, a Senior Health Specialist with IFC,
  • 01:16:14 the private sector arm of the World Bank Group.
  • 01:16:17 They'll answer some of the questions you've been posting in just a moment.
  • 01:16:21 First, let's recap on the main points from this event.
  • 01:16:24 What did we learn?
  • 01:16:26 COVID-19 has had a devastating impact, reversing recent gains in human capital.
  • 01:16:32 That's the knowledge, skills, and health that people need
  • 01:16:35 to achieve their potential and live healthy, productive lives.
  • 01:16:38 We also learned about how countries have been innovative
  • 01:16:41 in building and protecting human capital and were reminded
  • 01:16:45 that sustained political commitments and financing are still needed.
  • 01:16:49 We heard about how the World Bank Group is helping countries
  • 01:16:52 make more and better investments to stop human capital losses,
  • 01:16:56 protect and invest in people, and support stronger, more inclusive growth.
  • 01:17:01 Let's turn to Iffath Sharif and Charles Dalton.
  • 01:17:05 Thank you so much for being with us today.
  • 01:17:07 Our first question actually comes
  • 01:17:09 from Victor in Nigeria, and he sent us this video question.
  • 01:17:13 [Victor] Hello. Thanks for having me in this series.
  • 01:17:15 My name is [inaudible], Victor in Nigerian.
  • 01:17:19 The rate at which the COVID-19 pandemic travels
  • 01:17:22 proves that the world is here to evolve into a strong healthcare system.
  • 01:17:27 My question is, what does it really require to build
  • 01:17:31 a strong and resilient healthcare system that can withstand any form of pandemic?
  • 01:17:37 Thank you.
  • 01:17:40 [Rachelle Akuffo] Victor asked
  • 01:17:42 how we can be better prepared for the next pandemic
  • 01:17:45 and what it takes to build a stronger and resilient healthcare system?
  • 01:17:48 That question for both of you. Iffath let's start with you.
  • 01:17:51 [Iffath Sharif] Thank you. Thank you, Victor for this very important question.
  • 01:17:55 Building resilient health systems was
  • 01:17:58 always a priority even before the pandemic.
  • 01:18:01 The pandemic essentially highlighted
  • 01:18:03 how building such systems is actually part of a global public good.
  • 01:18:07 The concern really for us is that this
  • 01:18:09 is not a one off, that climate change, unplanned urbanization,
  • 01:18:15 lack of water and sanitation,
  • 01:18:16 they're all factors that are going to contribute
  • 01:18:19 to more such fast spreading disease outbreaks.
  • 01:18:22 What we really need is really a whole of society effort at the country levels,
  • 01:18:28 regional and global levels, to help with preparing against such pandemics.
  • 01:18:33 At the country level, what we will need is improved health infrastructure.
  • 01:18:37 This is investments in labs, surveillance,
  • 01:18:40 health equipment to really boost up that infrastructure.
  • 01:18:44 Equally important, we have learned from this pandemic
  • 01:18:47 that we need a well-trained healthcare staff,
  • 01:18:52 human capital, the human resources that will be needed
  • 01:18:55 to deliver not just the vaccinations,
  • 01:18:58 but essential health care that is required.
  • 01:19:02 This is, again, going to be critically important.
  • 01:19:06 Alongside, you will also need the support of community-based organizations
  • 01:19:11 to add support in terms of, again, delivering the vaccinations,
  • 01:19:15 basic immunizations that were short-changed during this pandemic.
  • 01:19:20 Their efforts will be critical.
  • 01:19:23 Equally critical would be the role of the private sector,
  • 01:19:25 working very closely with public health agencies
  • 01:19:29 in terms of improved research and development work,
  • 01:19:32 in terms of supporting community campaigns across countries,
  • 01:19:39 supporting privately delivered healthcare services.
  • 01:19:44 Our estimates state that countries will need
  • 01:19:48 an additional 30% increase in their health budget
  • 01:19:52 to address pandemic preparedness.
  • 01:19:53 This is not going to be easy
  • 01:19:55 given very tight government budgets.
  • 01:19:57 Again, the role of the private sector in helping to mobilize
  • 01:20:01 additional resources, efficient use of resources
  • 01:20:05 is going to be very important.
  • 01:20:06 It's a collective society effort in terms of mobilizing resources,
  • 01:20:12 both natural and human, to deal with the pandemic.
  • 01:20:15 What we've also learned from this pandemic
  • 01:20:18 is that addressing such an outbreak
  • 01:20:20 within the country's borders is not sufficient.
  • 01:20:22 You would need to work across countries, regions and globally
  • 01:20:26 to address a coordinated action to prevent spread.
  • 01:20:30 [LIVE: WORLD BANK GROUP EXPERTS ON INVESTING IN PEOPLE]
  • 01:20:31 Here, the World Bank has been working closely
  • 01:20:33 with a number of regional operations to support countries do exactly that,
  • 01:20:38 offer coordinated public action towards investments in infrastructure
  • 01:20:43 in the country level, but also communication and better coordination
  • 01:20:47 is something that we're supporting.
  • 01:20:52 Finally, the World Bank's low cost financing window, IDA,
  • 01:20:57 will be supporting the poorest countries investing in their health infrastructure,
  • 01:21:03 but also preparing not just for this pandemic, but other crisis.
  • 01:21:08 Thank you.
  • 01:21:09 [Rachelle Akuffo] Charles, how would you respond to Victor?
  • 01:21:11 [Charles Dalton] I agree with a lot of the comments that have just been made.
  • 01:21:14 What we've seen through COVID,
  • 01:21:17 is that a many health care systems
  • 01:21:19 have demonstrated some form of dysfunctionality,
  • 01:21:22 and I think we need to figure out how we can remove maybe the silo mindset
  • 01:21:26 that we've seen and how we can join the dots to create a system.
  • 01:21:30 For me, simplistically, you put the patient in the middle
  • 01:21:33 and say, What services do we need?
  • 01:21:36 What human resources do we need?
  • 01:21:37 How do we finance it?
  • 01:21:39 Just as mentioned, we've got a massive financing gap.
  • 01:21:42 Can we create more insurance coverage so there's less out-of-pocket coverage?
  • 01:21:46 We then need to look at the regulation side.
  • 01:21:49 We need to look at the whole digitization we're seeing.
  • 01:21:52 I think what we're also seeing from COVID is there has been
  • 01:21:57 a switch in dialogue between the public sector and the private sector.
  • 01:22:02 I think we need to continue that dialogue and understand
  • 01:22:05 how we can promote better understanding,
  • 01:22:08 better trust between the public and the private sector.
  • 01:22:11 and where the private sector can support governments.
  • 01:22:14 Remember, governments are the custodian of the whole health care system.
  • 01:22:17 [LIVE: YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED]
  • 01:22:18 We need to figure out how to make them work more together.
  • 01:22:21 We got supply chain.
  • 01:22:22 We have supply chain and manufacturing.
  • 01:22:25 We have vaccines, we have drugs, we have medical equipment.
  • 01:22:30 We also have how can the private sector support more training and development,
  • 01:22:34 how the private sector can work with government on gaps in services.
  • 01:22:37 We have seen a lack of ICU beds, for example, during COVID.
  • 01:22:41 We need more lab testing as well,
  • 01:22:44 where the private sector working with the public sector can help,
  • 01:22:48 but also on the human resources side as well as the training side, as I said.
  • 01:22:53 One thing for me is a better use of data analytics.
  • 01:22:59 If we're setting up social health insurance systems,
  • 01:23:03 there's a massive amount of data that's going to be within those systems.
  • 01:23:06 The private sector can help the public sector
  • 01:23:09 with the tools and the ability
  • 01:23:11 to innovate and just understand how and what that data means
  • 01:23:16 so they can get more value
  • 01:23:17 and they can stretch that dollar further, if that makes sense.
  • 01:23:21 We need to look at how we can strengthen the system
  • 01:23:25 and move away from the silo mentality. Thank you very much.
  • 01:23:28 [Rachelle Akuffo] That integration is very important.
  • 01:23:31 It certainly was a wake-up call for all healthcare systems.
  • 01:23:35 Our next question is on gender equality,
  • 01:23:38 and comes from Abu, also from Nigeria.
  • 01:23:41 Iffath, Abu asks, how can we empower women
  • 01:23:44 for the benefit of all society? How would you respond?
  • 01:23:48 [Iffath Sharif] Empowering women is really about supporting a process
  • 01:23:53 to help women make choices and decisions.
  • 01:23:57 To help with that, it's about addressing the fundamental constraints
  • 01:24:01 that prevent women from being able to make those choices.
  • 01:24:05 Here we see three areas of work that could help
  • 01:24:09 in terms of context, access to resources and women's agency.
  • 01:24:15 In terms of context, it's really about offering a conducive context
  • 01:24:21 for women to be able to make decisions.
  • 01:24:24 This would mean sort of changing norms, institutions,
  • 01:24:28 often laws and cultural expectations
  • 01:24:31 to again help women be able to make those choices.
  • 01:24:35 Second, it's about offering them the resources that are needed
  • 01:24:38 to offer them the tools to again achieve the goals that they set for them.
  • 01:24:45 This could be access to human capital.
  • 01:24:47 This could be access to financial capital, social capital that will help.
  • 01:24:52 The third area of constraint is really women's agency.
  • 01:24:56 What do I mean by that?
  • 01:24:57 It is really being able to give women
  • 01:24:59 the tools and the skills to help implement the decisions that they want to make.
  • 01:25:05 It's really working across all of these three areas
  • 01:25:08 that we think would really help empower women.
  • 01:25:11 It's not easy to do so,
  • 01:25:14 but not doing so comes at huge costs to countries, both economic and social.
  • 01:25:19 There's a lot of research that shows that mothers,
  • 01:25:22 when they're empowered to make decisions,
  • 01:25:24 are helping with improved outcomes for children's health and education.
  • 01:25:28 In fact, I've seen through first hand work in Nigeria
  • 01:25:33 that giving mothers a mere 15 dollars a month,
  • 01:25:38 a majority of them, use that money to help
  • 01:25:44 with the health and education of the children.
  • 01:25:46 When I asked some of the fathers,
  • 01:25:49 they use the money essentially for farm inputs to buy fertilizer.
  • 01:25:53 I know this is an anecdote,
  • 01:25:54 but it is quite consistent with the research evidence we have.
  • 01:26:00 In fact, a recent study by the World Bank suggests
  • 01:26:04 that not being able to give girls
  • 01:26:07 a full 12 years of education
  • 01:26:09 could cost countries 15 to 30 trillion US dollars
  • 01:26:15 of lost lifetime earnings.
  • 01:26:17 This is quite substantial.
  • 01:26:20 The World Bank as a result, has actually launched a public campaign,
  • 01:26:25 Accelerate Equality,
  • 01:26:27 to help countries bridge some of these gaps in the context,
  • 01:26:31 resources and agencies I mentioned
  • 01:26:34 to bring in transformative change in women's lives.
  • 01:26:37 [Rachelle Akuffo] It's interesting how they prioritize what to spend it on,
  • 01:26:40 and when you see the broader payoff as well.
  • 01:26:43 Charles, we heard from some earlier guests
  • 01:26:46 about the important role of the private sector
  • 01:26:48 in solving development challenges.
  • 01:26:50 Our next question touches on just that and comes from Diallo from Senegal.
  • 01:26:53 Now, Charles Diallo asks,
  • 01:26:55 how does the World Bank Group help promote private investment
  • 01:26:58 to benefit communities?
  • 01:27:00 [Charles Dalton] Good question.
  • 01:27:01 I sit within the IFC, the International Finance Corporation,
  • 01:27:05 which is the private sector arm of the World Bank.
  • 01:27:08 Our work is really
  • 01:27:11 to work with countries, to invest into countries,
  • 01:27:14 to stimulate the economy, to create jobs
  • 01:27:17 and just a general upliftment of strengthening the private sector.
  • 01:27:24 We do that with traditional financing solutions,
  • 01:27:28 plus innovating finance solutions,
  • 01:27:31 looking to work with multiple entities across multiple industries.
  • 01:27:35 We look at a country, see what their needs are,
  • 01:27:38 and then we invest into many, many different industries.
  • 01:27:41 I sit within the healthcare sector focus.
  • 01:27:43 From a healthcare sector focus, we look at health services,
  • 01:27:47 we look at life sciences, we look at medical equipment,
  • 01:27:50 and more recently, at digital health as well,
  • 01:27:52 because digital health all of a sudden has had this light bulb moment.
  • 01:27:56 I want to give you two quick examples of investments that we've made.
  • 01:28:01 One is in Asia in an entity called My Care.
  • 01:28:04 They support governments and the private sector
  • 01:28:07 from an insurance perspective,
  • 01:28:09 where they're giving them the data analytics
  • 01:28:12 to be able to manage their social health insurance programs,
  • 01:28:17 better understanding disease, understanding population,
  • 01:28:20 understanding what's affordable, looking at benefit design.
  • 01:28:23 The underpinning is this data management.
  • 01:28:25 I mentioned it in my first question,
  • 01:28:27 and you can see something I'm passionate about.
  • 01:28:29 We've got to get data management right, remove the data out of the silos,
  • 01:28:33 and look at it in an integrated manner.
  • 01:28:36 A second example is in Mexico.
  • 01:28:38 Mexico has a very high diabetes and hypertension rate.
  • 01:28:43 We've made an investment there in a group called Clínicas del Azúcar.
  • 01:28:46 They are a dedicated growing chain of clinics
  • 01:28:51 working with local populations across multiple income groups
  • 01:28:56 where they've designed from a people, process and technology perspective
  • 01:29:00 how to offer diabetes management and hypertension management.
  • 01:29:05 They've integrated nurses with clinicians, with pharmacists,
  • 01:29:09 with dieticians to basically create this one stop-shop
  • 01:29:13 and the importance of that
  • 01:29:15 is it enables patients to manage their diabetes but not end up in hospital
  • 01:29:22 where they become economically inactive, if I can call that.
  • 01:29:26 The whole thing is that they're contributing to the population
  • 01:29:32 to make sure that they maintain their economic activity.
  • 01:29:35 That's a couple of examples of where we're focused.
  • 01:29:38 We're trying to bring innovative ideas into countries
  • 01:29:41 to strengthen the healthcare system, as I said earlier.
  • 01:29:45 That's where IFC fits in and we do that in multiple industries.
  • 01:29:49 Thank you.
  • 01:29:50 [Rachelle Akuffo] Fascinating. The data then should inform
  • 01:29:53 the solutions, creating solutions that don't actually solve the problem.
  • 01:29:56 [Charles Dalton] Exactly.
  • 01:29:57 [Rachelle Akuffo] A very interesting point there.
  • 01:29:58 Thank you both for taking the time to answer these questions.
  • 01:30:01 Lots of great answers and of course to you,
  • 01:30:03 our viewers, thank you as well and continue to post your questions.
  • 01:30:06 Our live expert bloggers are staying online,
  • 01:30:09 and will try to answer as many as possible.
  • 01:30:12 This brings us to the end of this event.
  • 01:30:14 I want to thank all of our guests for joining us
  • 01:30:16 and sharing in this important discussion.
  • 01:30:19 Of course, I want to thank you, our viewers.
  • 01:30:21 We've had quite a line-up of events this week
  • 01:30:24 and they're all available to watch again.
  • 01:30:26 The meetings kicked off with a discussion
  • 01:30:28 between the leaders of the World Bank Group and IMF
  • 01:30:31 on responding to global shocks.
  • 01:30:33 We've also been discussing the potential of the digital revolution
  • 01:30:37 for developing countries and how to best finance climate action.
  • 01:30:41 Yesterday's event focused on helping communities
  • 01:30:44 living in fragile or conflict-afflicted situations,
  • 01:30:47 and explored how to best preserve open trade.
  • 01:30:50 You can watch all of those as well as a replay of this event
  • 01:30:53 at live.worldbank.org.
  • 01:30:56 You could share your comments on these Spring Meetings
  • 01:30:59 using the hashtag #ResilientFuture.
  • 01:31:00 #RESILIENTFUTURE]
  • 01:31:01 We hope you've enjoyed hearing from all of our distinguished guests
  • 01:31:04 at today's event and please do continue sharing those comments.
  • 01:31:08 We would love to hear from you.
  • 01:31:10 I'm Rachelle Akuffo. Thank you again.

Human Capital at the Crossroads: Reversing the Losses, Reclaiming our Future

Follow the event on Twitter #InvestInPeople

- Watch in: العربية | Français | Español -

Now, more than at any other time in living memory – human capital is being dealt devastating blows by conflict, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The losses to learning, health outcomes, livelihoods, and gender equality have immediate and long-term impacts on people’s wellbeing – and can undermine economic recovery and prosperity for years.  

Listen to leaders, innovators and change-makers who are taking action to put people at the heart of recovery. You will hear firsthand how such investments can not only change lives for individuals, but also create more inclusive and equitable societies.

00:00 Welcome! WBG Spring Meetings 2022 | Human Capital
03:44 Investing in human capital: The case of Tanzania
19:39 Data in focus: Learning poverty and the impact of the pandemic
21:44 Investing in the early years
45:17 Helping developing countries to protect and invest in their people
48:10 Building resilience from shocks to deliver better human capital outcomes
1:01:09 Young voices: How things can be improved to achieve their potential
1:03:38 Building skills and leveraging technology to create jobs and opportunities
1:12:34 Social media conversation and poll results
1:16:04 Live Q&A: How to support a stronger inclusive growth
1:30:12 Closure | Thanks for watching the WBG Spring Meetings 2022


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